Wednesday, May 19, 2021

What is Brick & What are the types of Brick

With the Increase in Construction of Frame Structures (RCC) and Steel Structures and also the increase in use of alternative use of materials for Masonry like AAC Blocks, one might say the importance of Brick and Brick Masonry is decreasing with time but it is still one of the most used construction Material.

“Everything starts with one step, or one brick, or one word or one day”

~Jeremy Gilley

Brick Masonry is considered as Durable. The entire process consists of laying bricks with the help of Cement Mortar in a defined manner to make walls that bear the loads acting on them.

There are several types of bricks and a number of mortars which  can be used to construct brick masonry.

The bond in brick masonry, which adheres bricks together, is produced by filling joints between bricks with suitable mortar. Special cautions shall be practiced while mortar is mixed and placed since it greatly affects the performance and durability of masonry structure.

Classification of Bricks Based on Raw Materials

On the basis of raw materials bricks are of the following kinds:

1. Burnt Clay Brick: It is obtained by pressing the clay in molds and fried and dried in kilns. It is the most used brick. It requires plastering when used in construction works. 

2. Fly ash clay Brick: It is manufactured when fly ash and clay are molded in 1000 degree Celsius. It contains a high volume of calcium oxide in fly ash. That is why it is usually described as self-cementing. It usually expands when coming into contact with moisture. It is less porous than clay bricks. It has a smooth surface so it doesn’t need plastering.

3. Concrete Brick: It is made of concrete. It is the least used brick. It has low compression strength and is of low quality. These bricks are used above and below the damp proof course. These bricks can be used for facades, fences and internal brickworks because of their sound reductions and heat resistance qualities. It is also called mortar brick. It can be of different colors if the pigment is added during manufacturing. It should not be used below ground. 

4. Sand-lime Brick: Sand, fly ash and lime are mixed and molded under pressure. During wet mixing, a chemical reaction takes place to bond the mixtures. Then they are placed in the molds. The color is greyish as it offers something of an aesthetic view. It offers a smoother finish and uniform appearance than the clay bricks. As a result, it also doesn’t require plastering. It is used as a load bearing member as it is immensely strong. 

5. Firebrick: It is also known as refractory bricks. It is manufactured from a specially designed earth. After burning, it can withstand very high temperature without affecting its shape, size, and strength. It is used for the lining of chimneys and furnaces where the usual temperature is expected to be very high.


Classification of Bricks Based on Quality

On the basis of quality, Bricks are of the following kinds:

1.   First Class Brick:

The size is standard. The color of these bricks is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt, has a regular texture, and a uniform shape. It doesn’t have efflorescence. It emits a metallic sound when struck by another similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is hard enough to resist any fingernail expression on the brick surface if one tries to do it with a thumbnail. It is free from pebbles, gravels or organic matter. It is generally used-

o   in a building of long durability, say 100 years

o   for building exposes to a corrosive environment;

o   for making coarse aggregate of concrete.


2.   Second Class Brick:

 The size is standard, the color is uniform yellow or red. It is well burnt. It has a regular shape; efflorescence is not appreciable. It emits a metallic sound when struck by another similar brick or struck by a hammer. It is hard enough to resist any fingernail expression on the brick surface if one tries to do it with a thumbnail. It is used for the construction of one-storied buildings, temporary sheds when intended durability is not more than 15 years. 


3.   Third Class Brick:

The shape and size are not regular. The color is soft and light red colored. It is under burnt, slightly over burnt is acceptable. It has extensive efflorescence. The texture is non-uniform. It emits a dull or blunt sound when struck by another similar brick or struck by a hammer. It leaves a fingernail expression when one tries to do it with the thumbnail.

For more details, watch this:

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